Monday, 29 April 2013

Conference of Gene by OMICS Publishing Group


The conference of gene by OMICS Publishing Group which was held in Foshan which belongs to China country from December 1 to 7, 2009.  This conference describes about gene of which is the primary physical and efficient unit of heredity. Genetics, which are made up of DNA, act as guidelines to make elements known as necessary protein. In humans, genes differ in dimension from a few hundred DNA angles to more than 2 thousand angles.
In this conference there were lots of speakers and editors who speak about genetics. Each person has two duplicates of each gene, one got from each mother or father. Mostly genetics are in same in all people, but some genetics are a little bit different between people. Alleles are types of the same gene with little variations in their series of DNA angles. These little variations give rise to each individual's exclusive actual functions.
Gene Therapy
How genes control the growth and division of cells?
A wide range of genetics is engaged in the control of cell growth and department. The cell cycle is the cell’s way of copying itself in a structured, step-by-step style. Tight regulation of this procedure guarantees that a splitting cell’s DNA is duplicated effectively, any errors in the DNA are fixed, and each little girl cell gets a full set of chromosomes. The cycle has check factors which allow certain genetics to check for errors and stop the pattern for maintenance if something goes incorrect.


Gene Therapy:
Gene therapy is a trial strategy that uses genetics to cure or avoid illness. In the future, this strategy may allow physicians to cure a problem by placing a gene into a patient’s tissues instead of using medicines or surgery treatment. Some of the approaches are:
        ·Changing a mutated gene that causes illness with a proper and balanced duplicate of the gene.
        · Presenting a new gene into the system of body for curing diseases.

Types of Cancer Treatments



Surgery treatment can be used to identify, treat, or even help avoid cancer in some cases. Mostly people with cancer will have some type of surgery. It often provides the biggest chance for treat, especially if the cancer has not propagated to other areas of the body.
cancer treatment
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Chemotherapy is the use of medication or drugs to cure cancer. The believed of having chemotherapy scares many individuals. But understanding what chemotherapy is, how it performs, and what to anticipate can often help relaxed your worries. It can also provide you with a better feeling of management over your cancer therapy.
Radiotherapy uses high-energy contaminants or surf to eliminate or harm cancer tissues. It is one of the most typical therapies for cancer, either by itself or along with other treatment options.
Targeted therapy is a more recent type of cancer therapy that uses drugs or other ingredients to more precisely recognize and attack cancer tissues, usually while doing little damage to normal tissues. Targeted therapy is a growing part of many cancer therapy routines.
Immunotherapy is therapy that uses your own immune system to help battle cancer. Get details about the different kinds of immunotherapy and the kinds of cancer they are used to cure.
Photodynamic therapy or PDT is a therapy that uses unique medication, known as photosensitizing providers, along with mild to destroy cancer tissues. The medicines only perform after they have been triggered or "turned on" by certain types of light.
Laser treatment, which is very highly effective, accurate supports of light, can be used instead of rotor blades for very cautious medical work, such as dealing with some cancers.
Blood Product Donation & Transfusions of blood vessels and blood products provisionally restore parts of the blood vessels when you can't make its own or has lost them from bleeding.
OMICS Publishing Group has published a slide share presentation on journal of cancer science and therapy.

Saturday, 27 April 2013

Overview of Wind Power



Wind is the activity of air from a place of high pressure to a place of low pressure. In fact, wind prevails because the sun unevenly warms the surface area of the World. As hot air increases, chilly air goes in to meet the increasing demand. As the sun shines, the wind will strike and as lengthy as the wind strikes, people will utilize it to power their life.
wind power
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Wind Power Starts with the Sun:
Wind energy is in fact a form of solar energy, because the wind which is caused by warm from the sun. Solar emission heats each part of the Earth’s area, but not regularly or at the same speed. Different surfaces and, water, stone and various types of ground process, retain, reflect and release warm at different prices, and the Earth generally gets hotter during daytime and chilly at night. As a result, the air above the Planet's area also warms up and cal me down at different prices. Hot air increases, reducing the environmental pressure near the Earth’s area, which draws in cool air to replace it.
Wind Power is Versatile:
Whenever air spreads which leads to wind and it has a kinetic energy that creates to mass in motion. By using the right technology the wind kinetic energy can be taken and converts into another form of energy like electricity or mechanical power.
Wind power is Renewable
Wind power must be in use as a chief part of any long-term strategy because wind power creates uses a normal and virtually inexhaustible source of power the wind to generate electricity. That is a stark contrast to fixed power plants that rely on power sources and built-up wind power creation is clean it does not cause air, soil or water quality. That’s a main difference between wind power and some other alternative power, such as nuclear power, which generates a large amount of hard-to-manage waste.

Friday, 26 April 2013

Vehicles using Solar Power

Vehicles using Solar Power
Solar vehicles have been designed in the last many years and are operated by energy from the sun. Although they are not a realistic or economic form of transport at present, in the future they may play a role in reducing our reliance on losing fossil fuels such as petrol and diesel fuel. 
Solar power vehicle can only run effectively when the sun stands out, although most vehicles of this kind have a battery power back-up. Electricity is saved in the battery when the sun is shining and this power can be used when sun light is limited (cloudy). The batteries are normally nickel-metal hydride batteries (NiMH), Nickel-Cadmium batteries (NiCd), Lithium ion battery or Lithium polymer batteries.
Solar vehicles Use to Generate an Electrical Current?
A solar energy car can function in one of two ways. It can capture sunlight and direct the energy toward an variety energy, or use the solar power technology to straight energy the vehicle. In either case, the car uses uses solar panels that involve energy, which are made up of semiconductors. These devices process sunlight, which makes a flow of electrons to generate power.
Uses of solar energy in cars:
The use of solar energy in cars is now also gaining a lot of reputation. Fuel has been changed by the eco-friendly gas in most automobiles. Some vehicles use solar panels to awesome the heat range inside a car on hot summer days. They work on the air flow system of the car and you do not need to change on the air-conditioner to cool off.
The solar power is produced when the sun’s energy is stuck by the photovoltaic cells. Researchers are working to develop cars which will run entirely on solar power technology. The solar power car battery charger is also a very good device that will save you energy and requires very little sustenance.

Wednesday, 24 April 2013

Soil Biology


Introduction:

Soil Biology is the study of the living component of soil– the parasites, fungus, and soil creatures which all have particular soil handling tasks. It is unique from, but connected to the procedures involved in Chemistry make up (nutrient processes) and Soil Physics (soil structure, framework, stability, water activity in soil).


Importance’s of soil biology:

Soil biological, actual and chemical techniques are related and all give rise to plant efficiency. The level of soil biological activity is therefore affected by the soil type, but it also depends on the control methods used, particularly the control of natural matter, especially carbon. Changes that are made to the material and physical environment in soil will therefore effect the scientific techniques and consequently the contribution they make to the soil’s fertility overall.

Soil biology is the research of soil biota and the communications they have with each other and their atmosphere. Soil biota contains four wide categories, depending on size:

• Microflora
• Microfauna
• Mesofauna
• Macrofauna

The soil biota consists of a tremendous variety with reviews indicating there could be greater than 15 000 different species per gram of soil. Much of this variety, mostly from the microflora group, is yet to be categorized, however genomic technology are assisting us recognize previously unknown soil organism.


Issues associated with soil biology:

Soil biology is a complex area, however, and research is constantly on the locate new information concerning the organisms themselves, their procedures and aspects that impact them. Additionally, control of soil biological processes is difficult to do accurately due to the varying aspects of each individual situation, such as soil type and land use. A certain area control practice may also impact one group of organisms, but not others.


Benefits of Soil biology:

Agricultural land management methods modify aspects of soil chemical and actual infertility with repercussions for soil scientific procedures and viceversa. Both wildlife and harmful bacteria contribute significantly to substance changes in the soil and impact their physical surroundings to various degrees. Organism on and around plant roots have major impacts on plant nutrient availability and some form specific organizations with legumes, which greatly impact the C: N rate of plant remains in soil.

Friday, 19 April 2013

Veterinary Science & Technology


Veterinary Science:

Veterinary Science is the study of the diseases and health servicing of animals.  It is a major that makes learners for professions concerned with animal health and well being, medical or biomedical sciences and medical or related areas which require scientific-based academic preparation.

Specialising in Veterinary Science will prepare you for a wide range of graduate student or professional educational institutions such as veterinary medicine, medical school, nursing, osteopathy, optometry, podiatry, physical or work-related treatment and dental care. Tasks associated with drug companies, feed and nutrition, research and growth, and food protection are just a few illustrations of the many profession routes that this degree program will prepare you for.

Veterinary medicine was not only once again used but trained in the first vet educational institutions. As a medical analytic, precautionary, and therapeutic treatment technology for animals, this division of medicine has as much flexibility as do other divisions and branches of human science. For example, a veterinarian may choose to practice internal medication, surgery treatment, or other medical preventative vet science; he or she may opt for operating only with small animals (also considered “pets”), only with large animals (livestock and/or village working animals), or only with wildlife. Others select to work specifically with exotic animals and pets (such as reptiles and possums).


Veterinary research:

A few illustrations in which this risk is appropriate are given below.


Infectious diseases:

Significant efforts have been, and keep be, made in order to develop vaccines against infectious diseases that affect man. When patients do become contaminated they usually receive health care and, if necessary, are handled in separated models.


Cloning and stem cell technology:

The latest growth of nuclear transfer technological innovation has allowed the growth of many genetically identical offspring from a single adult animal. Temporarily, the strategy includes the transfer of nuclei from donor cells into enucleated fertilized ova, which are deposited into the uterus of unrelated recipient females; novel but genetically similar individuals are created.

Wednesday, 17 April 2013

Tissue Science & Engineering


Tissue Science:

Tissue science and technological innovation is the use of physical, chemical, scientific, and technological procedures to control and direct the combination actions of tissues. An the actual field, restorative medication, involves some of the knowledge and practice of tissue technology and technological innovation but also contains self-healing through endogenous recruiting or exogenous delivery of appropriate cells, biomolecules, and supporting components.

Since the term tissues engineering was first used in 1985, important improvement has been made toward knowing and utilizing the structure-function connections in living organisms, and first-generation tissue-engineered healthcare products are commercially available. Yet, unresolved essential questions about how cells work within designed matrices compromise further progression. These new enhancements will be released into an extremely complicated and innovative healthcare industry in which traditional risk-benefit studies must be associated with cost-benefit studies.

Tissue science and engineering is expected to give rise to innovative products for the full variety of medical from the first analytic examining to the advanced levels of therapy. Thus, this field will be a fundamental part of the national discussion on moving to a medical care system that focuses on prediction, customization, and avoidance, while ongoing to improve treatments for end stage disease.

The following is a limited record of Exponent’s abilities in the Tissue Sciences and Engineering field:


Mechanical:

• Design, execution, and depiction of automatically active (2D and 3D) lifestyle gadgets. 
• Characterizing the technical properties of active (live) or passive (a cellular) cells products.
• Mechanical characterization of passive scientific graft materials.


Methods and Techniques:

Characterization of cells and tissues to the technical environment through:

 • Mechanical testing. 
• Assaying for matrix proteins accumulation.
• Measurement of radiolabel development to figure out matrix proteins biosynthesis. 
• Real-time quantitative RT-PCR to figure out gene expression.


Chemical:

• Characterization of cellular responses to disolveable aspect gradients (2D and 3D); cell migration assays and autocrine/paracrine communications
• Assay growth 
• Design of co-culture techniques within 2D and 3D surroundings (hydrogels, polymers, and biomatrices)

Tuesday, 16 April 2013

Social & Economical Issues of Biotechnology


Biotechnology:

The globalisation of biotechnology delivers not only new economical prospects but also new risks. The development of worldwide bio-safety suggestions is important. The globalisation of biotechnology not only new economic prospects but also new risks. According to cautionary concept, these risks could be prevented by applying appropriate technological innovation structuring. The following ideas are not recommendations for complete solutions, but may start a new horizon of concerns for combined interdisciplinary and intercultural project categories.


Structuring of Scientific-Technological Innovation:

Cultural models criticise some technical alternatives as inhuman or environmentally harmful and focus on adapted or intelligent solutions. Ideas of naturalness or humankind have always been included in a path-dependent alignment of particular technical improvements. The concrete paths of individual technology improvements result from the interaction of various chosen and restricted circumstances.


Biotechnology in Medicine:

The contribution of biotechnology to the health situation of creating and take-off countries might be small in the near future. The main cause for diseases in tropical areas can be found in nutrition and substandard hygiene circumstances especially amongst the poor population of creating nations. Methods of biotechnology and genetic engineering can be used to analysis and fight tropical diseases. Companies of poor developing countries or their government authorities are mostly incapable to manage those enhancements, which are essential for genetic research programs.


Biotechnology in Agriculture:

To feed the improving world population food production growth must be more than doubled within the next 15 decades; yet agricultural floor space cannot be prolonged. Cell- and tissue-technology, which generates virus-free compounds, can provide a participation of 15-30 percent. Systematic techniques to make simpler the diagnosis of plant diseases are of significance.

The number of plants that have efficiently been genetically modified has exploded during the last few decades and already contains almost all food- and export-plants that are appropriate for developing countries. But there is still a long way to go for research to convert lab and green house results into growth of transgenetic kinds to be used in farming.

Single Cell Biology


Introduction:

The ultimate biological unit can be found within a single cell. Many scientific professions have taken aim to elucidate the causes of cellular difference at this level. The key activates that signal human growth, regrowth and genetic diseases all lie buried in a single cell that was initially part of the genetically clonal, multicellular organism.

Despite careful work with innovative instrumentation available for the dissection of cells examples, several research recommend that pooled cell samples, thought to be homogenous, are often consisting of cells with quite different phenotypes.


Single Cell Analysis

Each of these methods has been used to the issue of increasing the genetic material in a single cell, and has met with some achievements. PEP PCR was the first to be used to single cell WGA, and was efficiently used in several following applications .A variant of the DOP PCR, designed by Rubicon Genomics, was used to increase single chromosomes, a task very soon followed by the use of a linker-adaptor PCR technique to also absolutely increase only single chromosome .

Advances in single cell WGA will allow the specialist to uncover the participation of genomics to single cell biology. Particularly, cancer and drug development research within genomics reveals the biggest potential for opportunity. Chromosomal aberrations, as a result of cancer, could be better catalogued when evaluating only a single cancerous cell to its normal counterpart. In addition, evaluating single cells from the‘treated’ population to the ‘untreated’ to assess genomic effects can be used to screen drug candidates.

The single cell method varies from the unique kit in three ways. First of all, WGA4 has a cell lysis protocol that combines together an effective lysis process with the original fragmentation. Secondly, the subsequent isothermal collection preparation actions use a newly optimized primer that gives better protection at low design but maintains low self-annealing and thus undetectable primer elongation. Lastly, the amplification cyclin protocol has been customized to use more cycles, enabling a higher complete amplification

Monday, 15 April 2013

Radiology


Introduction:

Radiology is the research of images of one's body system by the use of glowing power. A radiologist is a physician who has five to six years of extra coaching in decoding radiological pictures to identify and cure illnesses. When radiological images are taken, a radiologist's job is to understand outcomes and seek advice from with doctors to accomplish a diagnosis.


Radiologists do?

Most radiologists perform in a public or personal medical center or private radiology methods. They are there to help other doctors in diagnosing and treating sickness. Radiologists do this by knowing when an image analyzes may be required to answer a query about a symptom, disease, damage or therapy, etc., and also when imaging is unlikely to be beneficial.

 If an imaging test is required, radiologists know which analyze is likely to be the best one to answer the query, or, if more than one analyze is required, in which order the assessments should be done to get the best outcome.

Different types of Radiology are Diagnostic, Interventional and Therapeutic (called radiation oncology).


Diagnostic:

Diagnostic imaging uses simply X-ray radiology, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance image (MRI), ultrasound evaluation examination and nuclear medicine image techniques to acquire images that are considered to aid in the research of illness.


Interventional:

Interventional radiologists cure as well as identify disease using imaging equipment. Interventional radiologists may sub-specialise further so that they only cure irregularities of the brain or spinal cord Interventional radiology is a non-invasive techniques using X-ray, magnetic or ultrasound examination pictures to information the techniques, usually done with small equipment and thin plastic tubes called catheters placed through an artery or vein. Interventional Radiology techniques begin with passing a needle through the skin to the focus on it is sometimes known as pinhole surgery.


Radiation oncology:

Radiation oncology uses rays to treat diseases such as cancer, using radiotherapy and other diseases. It is the powerful tool to cure cancer. These professionals are not known as radiologists.

Oceanography


Introduction:

Oceanography, also called oceanology or marine science, is a huge technology regarded a branch of the Earth sciences. Oceanography is an interdisciplinary technology that uses ideas from biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and science to evaluate ocean currents, sea environments, ocean stormy weather, surf, ocean plate tectonics, and features of the sea ground, such as unique biomes such as cold penetrates and hydrothermal ports. Modern oceanography started in the 1760s.

What do Oceanographers do?

Seismology and sub-seabed geophysics are being researched using marine observatories. Moorings, with steel or Kevlar wire increasing from near the ocean surface to its base, are laced with equipment that record findings internal, and perhaps communicate them to a satellite television. And, increasingly, autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs) drive themselves or move with voltages for years at a time.

In the environmentally sensitive coastal ocean and estuaries, "cat-scans" can be done using fast, small boats towing equipment that fly through the water on a carefully managed course. Meanwhile, acoustic waves are sent down through the water line, and their reflections off small contaminants in the water give complete information of the sea speed, from top to bottom.


Oceanographic Technology Uses:

• Deep-sea cameras may be found on Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) operated from delivers, on landers placed onto the seafloor for a long period, or on robot submarines. ROVs are extremely mobile and allow us to discover areas of the ocean where the landscape stops us from using other study and sampling methods - such as submarine canyons.

• Sonar can offer fascinating visual 'pictures' of sound shown from animal life in the sea. They can offer understanding into animal behavior, such as the daily migration from deep to superficial absolute depths.

• Long-range sonar has many uses in relationship with ocean sources, from applying the form to identifying the structure of the seabed. Low regularity sonar can also go through the seabed, and offer details from structures beneath.